The death penalty
World & U.S. death penalty maps.
|Blue: Abolished for all crimes.|
|Lime-Green: Abolished for crimes
committed in exceptional circumstances (e.g. crimes committed in time of
|Orange: Abolished in practice|
|Reddish-brown: Legal form of punishment for what are regarded as serious offenses, This includes abandoning the religion of Islam or engaging in same-gender sexual acts in some predominately Islamic countries.|
Of the "reddish-brown" states, China is the only one that has a broad range of capital crimes, including tax fraud, minor drug offenses, and non-violent theft.
It is important to realize that capital crimes vary greatly around the world. In some states of the U.S., the death penalty is restricted to multiple murderers. Engaging in pre-marital sex or changing one's religion can be a capital offense in other countries. Same-gender sexual behavior is a capital offense in six predominately Muslim countries.
|Since the map was written, Connecticut has abandoned execution -- the 5th state to do so in 5 years.|
|Citizens in California will vote on election day 2012-NOV-06 whether to abandon the death penalty.|
|Blue states have
no death penalty statute.|
states have a death penalty statute but have not executed anyone since 1976.|
states have executed people since 1976.|
|New York's death penalty was declared unconstitutional in 2004.|
|The Kansas Supreme Court declared that the death penalty is constitutional by
a 5-4 vote on 2006-JUN-26.|
|New Jersey's legislature abolished the death penalty on 2007-DEC-18 -- the first state in 40 years to do so.|
|Three addtional states have ended the death penalty since 2007: New Mexico in 2009, Illinois in 2011, and Connecticut in 2012.|
|Countries with 25 or more executions: Iraq (29), Iran (265), Pakistan
(29), Saudi Arabia (156), USA (42).
These are all hightly religious countries whose citizens, with the exception of the U.S., enjoy few civil liberties.|
|Countries with 2 to 25 executions: Afghanistan (15), Bangladesh (6),
China (13), Japan (9), North Korea (8), Singapore (2), Somalia (3), Sudan
(2), Syria (5), Yemen (7).
|Countries with 1 execution: Belarus, Botswana, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kuwait.|
Unfortunately the quality of this data is poor because most of the countries that execute people are dictatorships with few human rights; their governments frequently do not release complete or accurate data.
Most countries use mercifully quick methods of killing prisoners. Techniques include hanging victims by first allowing them to free-fall until the rope breaks their neck and kills them, shooting, beheading, lethal injection, and in one case in Tennessee: the electric chair. Only a few predominately Muslim countries are known to execute prisoners by torturing them to death.
|In Iran a method that is often used in public hangings involves hoisting
the prisoner into the air or removing a box that they are standing on until
they eventually strangle to death.|
|Estimates of the number of stonings in Iran alone vary from 2 to many hundreds during 2007. Here, the victim is immobilized by having their bodies buried up to their neck. Their heads are then pelted with stones until they expire. The stones are sadistically chosen so that they are large enough to inflict considerable damage and pain, yet not large enough to kill the person quickly. 6|
As of the end of 2006, 86 countries no longer have the death penalty. This is a increase from 16 in 1977. Only three industrialized democracies still execute people: Japan, South Korea, and most states in the U.S.
|Year||Abolished death penalty for all crimes||Abolished death penalty for ordinary crimes|
|1979||Luxembourg, Nicaragua, Norway||Brazil, Fiji, Peru|
|1981||France, Cape Verde|
|1983||Cyprus, El Salvador|
|1987||Haiti, Liechtenstein, German Democratic Republic|
|1989||Cambodia, New Zealand, Romania, Slovenia|
|1990||Andorra, Croatia, Czech & Slovak Federal Republic,Hungary, Ireland, Mozambique, Namibia, São Tomé, Principe||Nepal|
|1993||Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Hong Kong|
|1995||Mauritius, Moldova, Spain||South Africa|
|2002||Europe (See note), Serbia, Yugoslavia, Cyprus. Moratorium on executions in the Philippines.||Turkey|
|2003||Kenya has an informal moratorium on executions.|
|2007||State of New Jersey, Rwanda|
|2009||State of New Mexico|
|2011||State of Illinois|
|2012||State of Connecticut|
|Russia and many more countries not listed above retain capital punishment statutes on their books, but have not
executed criminals in many years. Kenya, for example, executed its last prisoner on death row in 1984; Russia in 1996. A UN Economic
and Social Council report lists the current status of the death penalty in most of the countries of the world.
|2000: The state of New Hampshire voted to repeal capital
punishment. But governor Jeanne Shaheen (D) vetoed it.|
|2002: The 45-member Council of Europe allowed capital punishment in the past, for certain crimes during
wartime. Thirty-six members of the council voted to abandon the death penalty at a meeting during 2002-MAY.
This became effective on 2003-JUL-4.|
|2004: Taiwan's parliament studied the abolition of the death penalty in 2004
but took no action. 1 The
government has promoted abolition, but has not implemented it because public
opinion is about 80% in favor of executions. The number of executions has
dropped from 32 in 1998 to three in 2004, three in 2005, and none in 2007. 5|
|2008: The Nebraska legislature debated whether to abandon the death penalty, but decided to retain it.|
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