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Part 36 of "Conflics During
President Trump's Administration"

Late 2020-NOV to Late 2021-MAR:

Pres. Trump expected to win election.
Trump lost support among
conservative Christians.

Judges reject Trump's lawsuits
re: vote counting.
Some public demonstrations violent.
77% of Trump supporters believe
Joe Biden won due to voter fraud!
Trump says he will recognize the
Electoral College vote.
Attorney General disputes
President Trump's claims.
Federal Judge restores DACA
program for undocumented immigrants.
Electoral College members vote to make Biden the president elect.
Should the Electoral Collage system be changed?
President Trump impeachment trials by the House and Senate

Congress passes a bill giving legal status to about 2 million Dreamers

This is a continuation of the previous article:

2020-NOV-22: Electoral College count:

The count is unchanged for 9 days: Joe Biden has 306 electoral votes and President Trump has 232 votes. That assures Joe Biden's win even in the very unlikely event that the states with uncounted votes all end up with majorities for the President unless some states with a completed count are found to be in error.

2020-NOV-23: President Trump is under increasing pressure to concede that he lost the election and at least begin the transition:

Senator Kevin Cramer (R-ND), Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-AK), Senator Pat Toomey (R-PA) and Governor Larry Hogan (R-MD), the Republican governor of Maryland spoke out in favor of President Trump's transition to Joe Biden to begin. Senator Pat Toomey (R-PA) congratulated Biden on his victory.

Several more congressional members have suggested that Trump start the transition of power to Biden even as the court battles continue. Senator Mitt Romney (R-UT) said that Trump is trying to "subvert the will of the people." Retiring Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) said that Biden "has a very good chance” of winning.

Former president George W. Bush (R) has congratulated Biden for his win.

Some states, including Michigan and Pennsylvania will certify their election results in favor of Joe Biden soon. This will make Trump's victory impossible, unless an unprecedented number of electoral college voters become "faithless" and vote against the wishes of their state's voters.

President-elect Biden (D) is expected to name his cabinet on NOV-24.

Over 100 GOP national security experts signed a letter to urge Congressional Republicans to ask that President Donald Trump acknowledge that he lost the election and that he should begin the transition to the incoming administration of Joe Biden. They signed a letter that included the statement:

"President Trump’s refusal to permit the presidential transition poses significant risks to our national security, at a time when the U.S. confronts a global pandemic and faces serious threats from global adversaries, terrorist groups, and other forces." 43 

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Sponsored link:



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2020-NOV-23: President Elect Biden announces his national security team:

President-elect Joe Biden announced Monday some main positions on his national security team, including

  • Antony Blinken as secretary of state,
  • Alejandro Mayorkas as secretary of homeland security ,
  • Avril Haines as director of national intelligence,
  • Linda Thomas-Greenfield as ambassador to the United Nations,
  • Jake Sullivan as national security adviser.

He also announced a new position: former Secretary of State John Kerry will become a special presidential envoy for climate. Earlier, Kerry played a key role in negotiating the Paris climate accord to reduce climate emissions across the world.

Mr. Biden said that his team will be:

"... ready on Day One to help me reclaim America's seat at the head of the table, rally the world to meet the biggest challenges we face, and advance our security, prosperity, and values."

He said that the individuals he's chosen, with their imagination and years of experience, "reflect the idea that we cannot meet the profound challenges of this new moment with old thinking and unchanged habits or without diversity of background and perspective." 44

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2020-NOV-23: President Elect Biden announced his national security team:

He announced some additional main positions on his national security team, including: 

  • Antony Blinken as secretary of state,
  • Alejandro Mayorkas as secretary of homeland security ,
  • Avril Haines as director of national intelligence,
  • Linda Thomas-Greenfield as ambassador to the United Nations,
  • Jake Sullivan as national security adviser.

Mr. Biden said that his team will be:

"... ready on "Day One" to help me reclaim America's seat at the head of the table, rally the world to meet the biggest challenges we face, and advance our security, prosperity, and values."

He said that the individuals he's chosen, with their imagination and years of experience, "reflect the idea that we cannot meet the profound challenges of this new moment with old thinking and unchanged habits or without diversity of background and perspective."44

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2020-NOV-23: General Services Administration confirmed Joe Biden as "apparent winner" of the election:

President Trump thanked Emily Murphy, the GSA administrator on NOV-23, saying that he would tell his team to support the transition. But he did not knowledge that he lost the election. He promised to keep fighting "the good fight."

This should free up resources and staff to implement the transition, including matters related to national security, climate change, and the COVID-19 vaccine distribution plan.45

Meanwhile, President Trump is allowing the GSA to proceed with the Biden transition.

2020-NOV-25: Trump continues his attempts to overturn the election in his favor:

President Trump called for recognition of voter fraud, and said that he won a series of key swing states that actually went to Biden.

Meanwhile, Biden is projected to win 306 Electoral College votes, which is 36 more votes than the 270 he needs to win the Presidency.

Also, the General Services Administration chief Emily Murphy told President-elect Joe Biden that the Trump administration is making federal resources available for his transition into office.

Various state courts, including Pennsylvania Georgia and Michigan, have rejected Trump's legal cases that ask judges to block states from certifying their final vote tallies. 46

2020-NOV-27: President Trump promises to leave the White House:

He said that he will leave the White House if the Electoral College chooses Joe Biden as President. He also said that such a decision would be a "mistake."

An unidentified professor at the University of Southern California Gould School of Law said:

"Zombies are dead people walking among the living . This litigation is the same thing. In terms of litigation that could change the election, all these cases are basically dead men walking." 47.48

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2020-NOV-28: Republican congressman criticized President Trump:

Representative Denver Riggleman (R-VA) said that the Republican Party's refusal to acknowledge the results of the federal election and Joe Biden's win is a grift. The word "grift" is rarely used by some North Americans, and refers to a petty swindle or fraud).

He also said that President Trump has "never served anything but himself," and that the current posturing by his party is "just money-making for the 2024 election" and is completely unethical." 50


2020-NOV-30: A recount of the votes in Wisconsin confirms President-elect Biden's win:

President Donald Trump demanded a recount of the votes in two of the largest counties in Wisconsin: Milwaukee and Dane County. The results of the recount confirmed that Joe Bidon won with very slightly more votes than the original count indicated. 41

2020-DEC-02: Attorney General William Barr disputes President Trump fraud claim:

Barr was interviewed by the Associated Press. He stated that he had directed U.S. attorneys during November to examine any "substantial allegation" of voting irregularities." He said that:

"... to date, we have not seen fraud on a scale that could have effected a different outcome in the election. ..."

"There’s been one assertion that would be systemic fraud and that would be the claim that machines were programmed essentially to skew the election results. And the DHS and DOJ have looked into that, and so far, we haven’t seen anything to substantiate that."

President Trump's personal attorney, Rudy Giuliani, and his political campaign criticized Barr's comments, stating that:

"... with all due respect to the Attorney General, there hasn’t been any semblance” of an investigation into the president’s complaints."

"[There was] ample evidence of illegal voting in at least six states, which they have not examined.”

“We have many witnesses swearing under oath they saw crimes being committed in connection with voter fraud. As far as we know, not a single one has been interviewed by the DOJ.

The Justice Department also hasn’t audited any voting machines or used their subpoena powers to determine the truth." 51

On DEC-04, the Trump campaign was defeated by state courts' rulings in Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, and Wisconsin. All of the courts found no significant errors in the states' vote counts. 54

Federal judge orders the DACA program to be restored:

The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, (DACA) program gives young undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship. Many of them were brought to the U.S. illegally as infants or young children.

During 2019-JULY, Acting Homeland Security Secretary Chad Wolf issued a memo that reduced DACA recipients’ work permits to one year. The Trump administration tried to terminate the DACA program during 2017-NOV.

This would have forced the undocumented immigrants to return to their country of birth, even though they might not be able to speak the language there, knew little or nothing about its culture, and might not have any relatives there for support.

U.S. District Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis in Brooklyn, NY issued a ruling during 2020-NOVEMBER, saying that Secretary Wolf had unlawfully ascended to his job. Judge Garaufis also restored the DACA program to its original status.

He also instructed the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to post a public notice by DEC-07 that states that first-time applications will again be accepted, and that their work permits will be valid for two years. 52

Back in mid 2020-JUN, Pew Research released its public opinion poll on DACA. They found that 74% of U.S. adults favored retention of the program; 24% were opposed. 91% Democrats overwhelmingly supported DACA as did a small majority (54%) of Republicans. 53

On Monday, December 07, the DHS said that Citizenship and Immigration Services will now accept new applications, extend shortened work permits and deportation deferrals to two years. Beneficiaries will once again be able to apply for permission to travel internationally. 52

2020-DEC-05: Washington Post conducts a public opinion poll among congressional Republicans:

They found out that among the 249 Republican members of Congress:

  • 2 consider Donald Trump to have won the presidential election; 25 believe that Joe Biden won; 222 refuse to answer.

  • 8 support President Trump's efforts to claim victory; 9 oppose his efforts; 232 refuse to answer.

  • 30 would accept Biden as the next president if the Electoral College votes in his favor; 2 would not accept Biden; 237 refused to answer. 54

2020-DEC-14: The Electoral College will meet:

The Electoral College will meet on Monday to elect the next president. Joe Biden has a major electoral college vote advantage over President Trump: 306 to 232 -- a margin of 74 votes.

If every member of the Electoral College voted -- as expected -- according to the popular vote in their state, then Joe Biden will win.

In the past there have been zero to two electoral college members who have voted against the popular vote in their state. The are called "faithless electors." But even if a few dozen electors are "faithless" this time, Joe Biden will still win. 4

2020-DEC-14: Makeup of Congress in 2021:

The House: Democrats have retained control over the House, but with a smaller majority.

The Senate: Control over the Senate is not determined yet. Two run-off elections in Georgia on Tuesday, 2021-JAN-05 will determine which party will have a majority in the Senate. 4


2020-DEC-14: The Electoral College votes to make Biden the president elect. Attorney General Barr resigns:

All 538 electors voted for according to the election results in their state or the District of Columbia. There were no "faithless electors." Rep. Paul Mitchell becomes an Independent:

After Hawaii's electors became the lasst to vote, the result was 306 votes for Joe Biden as President with Kamala Harris as Vice-president, compared to 232 votes for President Donald Trump as President with Mike Pence as Vice president! 56

CNN reported that Representative Paul Mitchell (R) announced that he is abandoning the Republican Party and becoming an Independent. 57

Attorney General William Barr decided to resign because of President Trump's claims of election fraud and the investigation into Biden’s son. He will leave before Christmas and has submitted his letter of resignation.

The Electoral College votes will be sent to Congress to be certified by 2020-JAN-06. On JAN-20, Biden is expected to be sworn in as President at an inauguration ceremony. 58

Rep. Kyle Biedermann (R), a Trump supporter suggested that Texas and other "law-abiding" pro-Trump states could abandon the United States and join together to form a separate country. 58

Many top Republicans are acknowledging Joe Biden as the president elect. Speaking from the floor of the U.S. Senate where Biden spent 36 years of his career, Majority Leader Mitch McConnell congratulated his former colleague as president-elect.

From capitals across the world, leaders including Russia's Vladimir Putin and Mexico's Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador acknowledged Biden's win. 59 

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Should the Electoral Collage system be changed?

One fundamental rule found in a all democracies except the U.S. is that every person's vote counts equally.

That is, whichever candidate running for head of state who gets the most votes wins.

But in the U.S. there have been five occurances when a candidate lost the popular vote and yet became president. Two of these were in the past two decades:

  • George W. Bush during the election of 2000 and

  • Donald Trump in 2020.

CNN describes "innovative legal ways to change the Electoral College so that it would reflect the popular vote. 60 There is a growing movement to change the electoral college system in this way.

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2020-DEC-17: White House activities:

According to CNN, the White House has been flooded with calls asking President Trump to issue clemency to them -- pardoning them for past illegal behaviors. Pamela Brown, Kevin liptak and Jeremy Diamand wrote:

"Trump  is steadfastly refusing to acknowledge that he lost. In his moments of deepest denial, Trump has told some advisers that he will refuse to leave the White House on Inauguration Day, only to be walked down from that ledge." 61 

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2020-DEC-28: President Trump signs massive COVID relief bill:

President Donald Trump signed a relief package totalling a $900 billion dollars to help Americans struggling because of the pandemic.

The bill also provides $1.4 trillion dollars to fund government agencies until 2020-SEP and contains other end-of-session priorities including an increase in food stamp benefits. 62

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2021-JAN-06, 8 AM: Runoff elections in the State of Georgia:

The Associated Press and other outlets have declared Pastor Raphael Warnock (D) the winner against incumbent Sen. Kelly Loeffler (R) in a runoff election.

This was a historic win. Warnock became the first African American Senator ever elected in the South since the time of Reconstruction in the 19th Century!

This has resulted in an unusual balance of power in the Senate with Republicans currently holding 50 seats, Democrats 49, and one undecided.

Currently, Jon Ossoff (D) has a very narrow lead over David Perdue (R), in the other runoff election for Senator in Georgia. If he wins, then he would become, at 33 years of age,
the first Jewish Senator elected from the Deep South and the youngest Democrat Senator to be elected since the 1880's. 63

Almost all votes in the Ossoff v. Perdue election that were left to count were in traditional Democrat counties, so Ossoff (D) eventually was declared the winner.

With his win, the Senate is divided with 50 seats held by each party, and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris (D) will be able to cast any tie-breaking votes. 64

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2021-JAN-06, Congress invaded by President Trump's supporters; four die:

More than 170 business leaders had written a letter to Congress urging lawmakers to certify Biden’s win in the Electoral College.

Congress started what was normally a routine procedure to certify the findings of the Electoral College count and confirm that Joe Biden won the 2020 election for President. 

President Trump held a rally in which he repeated his belief that he had won the election, and thus had four more years as President.

A group of President Trump's supporters invaded the U.S. Capital Building in Washington DC. It was placed on lockdown. District of Columbia and Virginia units of the National Guard were activated.

Mayor Muriel Bowser of Washington, D.C., ordered a 12-hour curfew beginning at 6pm.

Morning Brew emailed that

"... what had typically been a routine process in presidential transitions descended into one of the darkest days for American democracy."

Their email stated that "Four people died. Two pipe bombs were discovered."

Sam Liccardo, the mayor of San Jose and a former federal prosecutor, called for Trump to be ‘tried for sedition’ after the U.S. Capitol was stormed by rioters. 69

Jay Timmons, head of the National Association of Manufacturers, wrote his opinion that President Trump "... incited violence in an attempt to retain power."  Timmons urged Vice President Mike Pence
to consider invoking the 25th Amendment to remove Trump from his position and "preserve democracy." 65 The 25th Amendment states  that the vice president becomes acting president when
a president becomes unable to carry out his duties. It has been used in the past when a President became medically ill or was about to undergo an medical operation. If used now, it would be in a unique way.

President Trump released a video repeating his claim that he won the election "in a landslide," and telling his supporters to "go home." 69

Congress certified Joe Biden's and Kamala Harris' victories in the Electoral College as President and Vice President at about 3:40 AM local time on 2021-JAN-07. 66, 67, 68

Many former and current Republican lawmakers responded with letters to the Capitol Hill violence. 71

ProPublica and Frontline issued a joint report titled: "Members of Several Well-Known Hate Groups Identified at Capitol Riot." The groups included the Proud Boys, and several
noted hardcore nativists and white nationalists who participated in the 2017 white power rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.  Oath Keepers, a long-standing militia group that has
pledged to ignite a civil war on behalf of Trump were there, as were Boogaloo Bois', and several well known white suppremacisy leaders. 79

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2021-JAN-07: President Trump acknowledges that his term is ending!

During the early morning, for the first time, President Trump acknowledged that he lost the 2020 Presidential election. A few minutes after Congress confirmed Joe Biden's victory as President-elect, Trump's social media director, Dan Scavino, tweeted a statement by President Trump:

"Even though I totally disagree with the outcome of the election, and the facts bear me out, nevertheless there will be an orderly transition on January 20th.

I have always said we would continue our fight to ensure that only legal votes were counted.

While this represents the end of the greatest first term in presidential history, it’s only the beginning of our fight to Make America Great Again!" 67

Twitter temporarily locked Trump's account Wednesday and threatened "permanent suspension," saying Trump had committed "severe" violations of the company's civil integrity policy.

Facebook later announced that it was blocking both President Trump's Facebook and Instagram accounts for an indefinite period. Mark Zuckerberg, the CEO of Facebook said that this was because Trump encouraged a mob that stormed the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, showing that he planned to:

"... use his remaining time in office to undermine the peaceful and lawful transfer of power to his elected successor, Joe Biden."

Zuckerberg said the risks of letting Trump continue to use the company's platforms were:

"Simply too great [so it was] extending the block we have placed on his Facebook and Instagram accounts indefinitely and for at least the next two weeks until the peaceful transition of power is complete." 70

Twitter also cancelled President Trump account permanently, and issued a statement:

"After close review of recent Tweets from the @realDonaldTrump account, and the context around them, we have permanently suspended the account due to the risk of further incitement of violence." 71,72

Four days after the invasion of the U.S. Capital Building, when four people died, the flag on the White House was finally lowered to half mast on 2021-JAN-10 at 2:26 PM. One was killed by gun fire from a police officer. The other three died from medical emergencies probably triggered by the invasion.

Articles of impeachment have been drawn up against President Trump and signed by more than 140 congress members. It was introduced on JAN-11, and charged him with "incitement of insurrection." for his involvement in the riot and invasion of the U.S. Capitol.

It says: "He threatened the integrity of the democratic system, interfered with the peaceful transition of power, and imperiled a coequal branch of government. He thereby betrayed his trust as president, to the manifest injury of the people of the United States." 78

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2021-JAN-07: After Congress certified that Joe Biden won the election for President, President Trump acknowledges that his term is ending!

After Congress certified Joe Biden as having won the 2020 Presidential election, President Trump said that there would be an "orderly transition of power" on JAN-20.

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2021-JAN-11: Lawmakers might have been exposed to COVID-19 during the riot lockdown at the Capitol:

Brian Monahan, the attending physician to Congress, sent an email to lawmakers indicating that some might have been exposed to COVID-19 during the siege at the Capitol. Scores of House members and staff assembled in a large committee hearing space for up to several hours.

Some Republicans declined masks that were offered to them by a Democrat. 74

A vote in the House is expected on whether to ask Vice President Mike Pence to remove President Trump from office, using the 25th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. It would declare President Trump to be incapable of funfillin the duties of the office.

House Republican leader Kevin McCarthy did not immediately respond to a request for comment. McCarthy on Friday rejected the idea of impeaching Trump, saying it would only compound divisions within the United States. 75

Joe Biden is scheduled to be sworn in as President on JAN-20.

Rep. Bonnie Coleman (D) from New Jersey tested positive for the Coronavirus after being in protective isolation during the Capitol riot when many lawmakers refused to war masks.

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2021-JAN-11: Dow, Facebook, FedEx, JPMorgan, Marriott, and other major firms pause or halt donations to political action committees:

They were reacting to the previous week's insurrection at the Capitol. Others, including American Express and Dow Chemical, said they would not fund politicians who voted against the certification of the Electoral College results.

Craig Holman, government affairs lobbyist for Public Citizen, a money-in-politics group, said: "These corporations are doing something very new, and something that could potentially alienate an important base for them.I’ve never heard of this happening before." 75

Joe Biden is scheduled to be sworn in as President on JAN-20. 76

My NBC5 reported that the House introduced an article of impeachment against President Drump. That may seem strange, since he only has a few days left in office. However, if he is impeached, then then the Senate can take another vote that would make it impossible for him to ever run for office again. Meanwhile, millions of people in the U.S. are left without paid sick leave after Congress let pandamec benefits expire. 77

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2021-JAN-13: President Donald Trump was impeached for the second time, by the House:

This is only a week before his term as President was scheduled to expire.

The House of Representatives accused President Trump of "incitement of insurrection" because of his alleged involvement in the storming of the Capitol building and the resultant loss of life.


Representative Jamie Raskin (D) drafted the article of impeachment. He said during an interview:

"We need to create a dynamic of action in which all of our colleagues are forced to confront their conscience about the permission they’ve given the president to trample all of the principles and values of our Constitution.”

He will be the lead prosecutor in a Senate trial of President Trump. At the time he prepared the impeachment, Raskin was dealing with a family tragedy. His son had committed suicide on New Year's Eve.

He and Democratic Reps David Cicilline, and Ted Lieu, and Jamie Raskin introduced it to the House. The bill had over 200 co-sponsors!

All 222 House Democrats voted in favor of impeachment. 197 Republicans voted against; ten voted in favor; four Republicans refused to vote. The result was 232 in favor; 197 opposed to the impeachment.

This is the only time in the almost two and a half century of U.S. history that one President has been impeached twice!

The article of impeachment now goes to the Senate for a vote. 80,81 The Senate impeachment trial will probably be what is called a "late impeachment" -- one held after the individual accused has left office.

Only if two thirds of the Senators vote for Impeachment will it become effective.

Between JAN-6 and 9, four public opinion polls were held to find out support and opposition levels among the public. Results were:

  • Jan 6: You Gov: 50% support and 42% opposition to impeachment.
  • Jan 6 & 7: Axios/Ispos: 51% & 49%
  • Jan 7:PBS/Marist: 48% & 49%
  • Jan 8 & 9: ABC/Ispsos: 56% & 43%

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2021-JAN-20: As President Biden prepares to take office, his administration planned to reverse some of Trump's policies:

President Trump was snubbed as only five White House staff members attended his farewell as the left the White House. He spent some time at a send-off ceremony at Joint Base Andrews, and then headed to Florida on Air Force One.

Within the first days as President, the Joe Biden Administration planned to reverse some Trump policies, including:

  • Cancelling the Mexico City Policy (also referred to as the global gag rule) which prohibits U.S. federal funding for non-governmental organizations (NGO's) that provide abortion counseling or referrals, advocate the decriminalization of abortion, or expand abortion services.
  • Cancel the ban on travel from several majority Muslim countries to the U.S.
  • Rejoining the World Health Organization.
  • Reverse the exclusion of noncitizens from the U.S. census.
  • Revoking the permit to construct the Keystone XL pipeline.
  • Rejoining the Paris Climate Accord. 82

He is also expected to sign an executive order requiring people to wear masks on all federal locations. Other changes are expected to call for policy reviews, plannning and recommendatiion on nest steps -- not new policies to implement quickly.

On FEB-02, he said:

"I’m not making new law. I’m eliminating bad policy." 83

He created a task force to reunite approximately 600 families separated at the border by the Trump administration, and to review a Trump-era program that forced tens of thousands of people to remain in Mexico whille their asylum cases were processed.

Consruction of the border wall between the U.S. and Mexico has been stopped.

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2021-FEB-13: Public opinion poll about former President Trump's presidency:

Alex Shipman reported on the UK Daily Express that a U.S. poll was conducted by You Gov during early February. It found that the largest percentage (46%) of respondents named Donald Trump as the worst president in U.S. history.

Barack Obama was selected as the best president. 84

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2021-FEB-13: Majority of U.S. Senators find President Trump guilty:

By a vote if 57 to 43, seven Republican Senators joined all of the Democratic Senators in an unusual weekend session on Saturday. They voted on the article of impeachment.

However, even though a majority found former President Trump guilty, the vote fell short of the two-thirds majority to convict him. And so, he was acquitted. 85

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2021-MAR-18: House passes the American Dream and Promise Act of 2021:

On a near party-line vote of 228-179 with Democrates voting in favor, a bill offering legal status for about 2 million Dreamers was passed in the House. It will later be considered by the Senate. 86

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References used:

The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today:

  1. Melissa Quinn, "Nearly 500 ex-military, national security officials throw support behind Biden," CBS News, 2020-SEP-24, at:
  2. "Trump blasts ballots when asked about election aftermath: 'The ballots are a disaster'," Fox News, 2020-SEP-24, at:
  3. "2020 Belarusian protests, Wikipedia, as on 2020-OCT-23, at:
  4. "Tuesday Night SmackDown: POTUS Edition," Emailing, 2020-SEP-30, at:
  5. Aaron Blake, "5 takeaways from the first presidential debate", Washington Post, 2020-SEP 29, at:
  6. John Wagner, et al., "Thursday presidential debate canceled; Trump appears on conservative media," The Washington Post, 2020-OCT-09, at:
  7. John Wagner, et al., "Election live updates: Debate commission says it will change structure to ensure more ‘orderly discussion’," Washington Post, 2020-SEP-30, at:
  8. Tamer Fakahany, "Trump says he and first lady tested positive for Coronavirus, joins growing list of infected leaders, adds another election volatility," AP Morning Wire, 2020-OCT-02. at:
  9. Scott Clement et al., "The Washington Post-ABC poll: Biden maintains lead nationally over Trump, Washington Post, 2020-OCT-11, at:
  10. Tony Burman, "Stain of the Trump era, on full display during presidential debate, could make life very complicated for President Joe Biden, Toronto Star, 2020-OCT-23, :
  11. J.D. Salant, ‘Winner of tonight’s debate is the mute button,’ and other observations from the second presidential debate," True Jersey, 2020-OCT-23, at:
  12. Nate Cohn, "The Electoral College’s Real Problem: It’s Biased Toward the Big Battlegrounds," The New York Times, 2019-MAR-22, at:
  13. John Whitesides & Joseph Ax,"Biden Takes Narrow Lead in Georgia, Putting White House in Reach," U.S. News, 2020-NOV-06, at:
  14. Madeline Roth, "US election electoral college votes tracker: Live updates,", 2020-NOV-05, at:
  15. Anon, Decision Desk HQ, 2020-NOV-6, at:
  16. Lisa Steacy, "Joe Biden predicts decisive presidential victory: 'The numbers tell us a clear and convincing story'," City News, 2020-NOV-06, at:
  17. Sorry, I lost the link and was unable to find it again. This is the first time in over 20 years of working on this web site that this has happened.
  18. Taegan Goddard, "Vote Count Slows to a Crawl," Ted Goddard's Political Wire, 2020-NOV-07, at:
  19. Jeffery Martin, "Joe Biden Says He's Going to Win With a Mandate for Action on Racism, Climate and COVID," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-07, at:
  20. Richard Hall, "Pennsylvania election results: Joe Biden declared president after winning tipping point state," Independent, 2020-NOV-07, at:
  21. Dylan Stableford, et al., "Biden wins 2020 presidential election: Live coverage," Yahoo/Canada, 2020-NOV-07, at:
  22. Aubrey Allegretti, "US election results: Joe Biden says 'I'm honoured you've chosen me' as Donald Trump refuses to concede
  23. Deirdre Schsgreen, "If Trump still won't concede to Biden, he'll break more than a century of tradition," USA Today, 2020-NOV-07, at:
  24. Sean Fine, "Trump campaign files lawsuit to block certification of Pennsylvania voting results," The Globe and Mail, 2020-NOV-10, at:
  25. Gabby Orr, "How Biden swung the religious vote," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-11, at:
  26. Kylie Atwood, "State Department is preventing Biden from accessing messages from foreign leaders," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-11, at:
  27. Biden's reference to "demonetization" is ambiguous. From the context of his words, he seems to mean "demonize." But the actual meaning of the term that he used is to remove a currency from use as legal tender.
  28. Tyler Van Dyke, "Biden on path to win 306 Electoral College votes, same as Trump's 'landslide' victory in 2016," Washington examiner, 2020-NOV-06, at:
  29. "2020 election had highest voter turnout in a century," The Week, 2020-NOV-12, at:
  30. Jennifer Rubin, "The election can’t be ‘stolen.’ But something worse is happening," The Washington Post, 2020-NOV-11, at:
  31. Chris Kahn, "Nearly 80% of Americans say Biden won White House, ignoring Trump's refusal to concede: Reuters/Ipsos poll," Reuters, 2020-NOV-10, at:
  32. Jessi Hellmann, "Biden set to roll back Trump rules on abortion," The Hill, 2020-NOV-13, at:
  33. Catherine Larkin, "Biden Wins Georgia, Trump Wins North Carolina, Networks Project," Microsoft Network, 2020-NOV-13, at:
  34. Claudia Deane & Jouh Gramlich, "2020 election reveals two broad voting coalitions fundamentally at odds," Pew Research Center, 2020-NOV-06, at:
  35. Ashraf Khalil And Kevin Freking, "Trump supporters morning protests turn into violent clashes," Canadian Press, 2020-NOV-15, at:
  36. "Donald Trump's estranged niece says uncle is 'deliberately' refusing to concede election," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-15, at:
  37. Soeren Kern, "Was the US Election Stolen," Gatestone Institute, 2020-NOV-17, at:
  38. "Judges appear increasingly frustrated with Trump's legal claims about election," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-16, at:
  39. Zach Montellaro, "Georgia to certify Biden’s victory," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-20 at:
  40. David Gergen and Caroline Cohen, "Opinion: What Trump is doing should worry us all," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-20, at:
  41. Andy Sullivan, "After Pennsylvania court defeat, Trump faces new pressure to concede election," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-22, at:
  42. Josh Wingrove and Steven T. Dennis, "Trump Faces Rising Pressure From Allies to Concede to Biden," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-23, at:
  43. Tom Hamburger & Ellen Nakashima, "Republican national security experts call on Trump to concede, begin transition," Washington Post, 2020-NOV-23, at:
  44. "Biden announces national security team," CBS News, 2020-NOV-23, at: Biden announces national security team
  45. Lex Harvey, "A key government agency certified Biden’s win," The Toronto Star, 2020-NOV-24, Email from Lex Harvey at the Toronto Star.
  46. Star Kevin Breuninger, "Trump administration begins transition to Biden after weeks of delay," CNBC, 2020-NOV-24
  47. Cara Rubinsky Pia Sarkar, "Trump at last says he'll leave the White House if the Electoral College seats Biden," Associated Press, 2019-NOV-27.
  48. Christina Zhao, "Trump Takes Step Toward Concession, Says He Will Recognize Electoral College Vote," Newsweek, 2020-NOV-26, at:
  49. Justin McCarthy, "Confidence in Accuracy of U.S. Election Matches Record Low," Gallup, 2020-OCT-08, at:
  50. John Dorman, "GOP congressman calls party's refusal to acknowledge Biden's win a 'massive grift' and says Trump 'forgot he was serving people and not himself'," Microsoft News, 2020-NOV-28, at:
  51. Michael Balsamo, "Disputing Trump, Barr says no widespread election fraud," Associated Press News, 2020-DEC-02, at:
  52. Maria Sacchetti, "Federal judge restores DACA, orders DHS to accept first-time applications from immigrants," Washington Post, 2020-DEC-04
  53. Jens Manuel Krogstad, "In 2018, Americans broadly supported legal status for immigrants brought to the U.S. illegally as children, Pew Research Center, 2020-JUN-18.
  54. Paul Kane & Scott Clement, "Just 25 congressional Republicans acknowledge Biden’s win, Washington Post survey finds," Washington Post, 2020-DEC-05.
  55. Email from Gabe Ortíz of the Daily Kos on 2020-DEC-10
  56. "Electoral College makes it official: Biden won, Trump lost," Fox 23 News, 2020-DEC-14, at: Electoral College makes it official
  57. Jake Tapper, "Congressman cites Trump's efforts to overturn election in announcing decision to quit GOP," 2020-DEC-14, Congressman cites Trump's efforts to overturn election in announcing decision to quit GOP
  58. Edward Keenan, "The electoral college chose Joe Biden, but Donald Trump and his supporters won’t admit defeat," Toronto Star, 2020-DEC-14, at: The electoral college chose Joe Biden...
  59. Will Weissert, "Turning the page? Top Republicans acknowledge President-elect Biden's victory,, 2020-DEC-15, at: Turning the page?
  60. Elle Honig, "There are innovative legal ways to get the Electoral College to reflect the popular vote," CNN, 2020-DEC-13, at:
  61. Pamela Brown, et al., "'It's turned crazy': Inside the scramble for Trump pardons," CNN Politics, 2019-DEC-17, at: Trump pardon requests pour in during final weeks
  62. Jill Colvin, et al., "Trump relents, signs COVID relief, averts federal shutdow," Associated Press, 2020-DEC-28, at: Trump relents, signs COVID relief, averts federal shutdown
  63. Colin Kalmbacher, "With Black and Jewish Candidates in Deep South, Dems Projected to Win Georgia and Take Senate–Putting Biden’s ‘FDR-Sized’ Promise to the Test," Law and Crime, 2021-JAN-06, at: Warnock, Ossoff Projected to Win
  64. "Democrat [sic] are inching closer to control of the Senate with a victory for Warnock," Washington Post, 2020-JAN-06, at: The Health 202
  65. Email from the Morning Brew, 2021-JAN-07.
  66. "Congress, Pence certify Joe Biden's presidential victory." This Week, 2021-JAN-07, at: Congress, Pence certify Joe Biden's presidential victory"
  67. Dan Scavino's Twitter thread, 2021-JAN-07, at: Dan Scavino on Twitter
  68. Zeke Miller & JillColvin, "Trump says his term is ending, transition will be orderly," Star Tribune, 2021-JAN-07, at: Trump says his term is ending
  69. "San Jose Mayor Liccardo calls for Trump to be ‘tried for sedition’ after rioters storm U.S. Capitol," San Jose Spotlight, 2019-JAN-06, at:
  70. "Facebook extends suspension of Trump accounts,:" The Week, 2021-JAN-08, at: 10 things you need to know today
  71. Kayla Koslosky, "Former, Current Republican Lawmakers Respond to the Violence on Capitol Hill," Christian Headlines, 2021-JAN-07, at: Republican Lawmakers Respond to the Violence on Capitol Hill
  72. Zoe Jones & Justin Carissimo, "Twitter permanently bans Trump, CBS News, 2021-JAN-09, at: Twitter permanently bans Trump
  73. Mark Sumner, "Trump is sorry ... that he didn't do more to support the violent mob of insurrectionists," Daily KOS, 2021-JAN-09, at: Trump is sorry ... that he didn't do more to support the violent mob of insurrectionists
  74. "10 things you need to know today," email from, 2010-JAN-11.
  75. Susan Cornwell, et al., "U.S. House Democrats to pursue impeachment if Trump not removed," Reuters, 2021-JAN-10, at: U.S. House Democrats to pursue impeachment if Trump not removed
  76. Todd C Frankel, et al., "U.S. campaign finance system rocked as major firms pause or halt political contributions after election results challenged," Washington Post, 2020-JAN-11, at: The Washington Post
  77. "If Donald Trump Gets Impeached Again, Here Are The Rules He'll Have To Follow,", 2021-JAN-11, at:
  78. "Impeachment, concerns of more violence surround Inauguration Day," MyNBC5 News, 2021-JAN-12, at:
  79.  A.C. Thompson & Ford Fischer, "Members of Several Well-Known Hate Groups Identified at Capitol Riot:, 2021-JAN-09, ProPublica, at: Members of Several Well-Known Hate Groups Identified at Capitol Riot
  80. "Jamie Raskin: Impeachment Manager Leads the Push to Oust Trump," The New York Times, 2021-JAN-13, at: Who is Jamie Raskin? Impeachment Manager Leads the Push to Oust Trump
  81. Text of the Article of Impeachment, Wikisource, 2021-JAN-14, at:
  82. John Wagner, "Trump leaves White House for final time ..." The Washington Post, 2021-JAN-20, at: Biden Inauguration Day live updates
  83. "Biden signs executive orders on family separation and asylum," Politico, 2021-FEB-02. at: Biden signs executive orders on family separation and asylum
  84. Alex Shipman, "Donald Trump voted worst president in history in US poll," UK Express, 2021-FEB-13, at: Donald Trump voted worst president
  85. Lisa Mascaro, et al., "Trump acquitted by U.S. senate in 2nd impeachment trial," Associated Press, 2021-FEB-13, at: Trump acquitted by U.S. senate in 2nd impeachment trial
  86. Alan Fram, "Divided House OKs Dems' bill helping Dreamer immigrants," NBC News, 2021-MAR-22, at: Divided House OKs Dems' bill helping Dreamer immigrants
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